09-03-1945 – 10-03-1945 Ha Giang Tonkin

In search of the legionnaires who died during the fighting and the massacre that followed it in Ha Giang, Tonkin, 9th and 10th of March 1945.

Introduction

Whilst progressing my search of Dutchmen who served in the French Foreign Legion, I came across the name of a Dutchmen who died in Tonkin on the 10th of March 1945 in a place called Ha Giang. His name was Wilhem Colijn.
The French database of “Mémoire des hommes” in which I found his name, however, did not provide any details about his unit.
Based on the date and location of his death and the fact that he as a foreigner served in the French Army, it was very likely Wilhem, actually Willem, Colijn was serving with the French Foreign Legion.
To confirm this I searched for more information about the place Ha Giang and the date at which Willem Colijn died.
As such I became aware of the events that took place in Ha Giang on the 9th and 10th of March 1945.
In brief on the 9th of March 1945, Japanese troops attacked the French Garnison and after some fierce fighting all remaining French troops surrendered on the 10th of March. On that same day most of the captured soldiers were massacred by the Japanese.
A detailed account as given in The Tigers of Tonkin – The History of the French Foreign Legion in Indochina 1883-1945. Andrew J. Mitchell, can be found here/

https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=3604219256314038&id=2191131844289460

Source and details

The event is described often brief, sometimes in more detail in various books about either the history of Indochina or the French Foreign Legion. Rarely, however, sources are indicated on which numbers of casualties are based.
All of them do however indicate that a special unit of the French Foreign Legion was present in Ha Giang and that its commander was adjudant-chef Sury. The strength of this special unit is often given as 87 of which 82 died.
P. Montagnon, in his book “France-Indochine: Un siècle de vie commune” indicates that adjudant-chef Sury had 40 non-commissioned officers and legionnaires under his command as well as 30 convicts.
Montagnon also wrote that after the fighting against the Japannees that took place from the 9th of March 1945 until the 10th of March 1945, 15 men were killed and 50 were injured and that these 50 men were later assassinated by the Japannees.

Ha Giang was greatly dominated by Fort Bilotte which sat perched upon a hill forty meters above the city.
Two hundred meters to the southeast was the barracks of the Legion discipline company.
A white stucco building with two floors constructed in the typical colonial style stretching some fifty-meters-long. The first floor was galleried both on the inside, and on the outside.
Snaking past them to the east was the Clear River.

Photograph, probably from around 1900.
Original caption “Ha Giang Caserne de la Legion Etrangere”

G. Sabattier. Le destin de l’Indochine, Souvenirs et documents : 1941-1951

After some further research the book:L Le destin de l’Indochine, Souvenirs et documents : 1941-1951 written bij G. Sabattier (General) was found. This book from 1952, is seen as the most reliable source, because it appears the information provided in it is taken from official documents from that period.
G. Sabattier indicates following strength of the special unit of the Legion.

– le section spéciale du 5e régiment étranger d’infanterie à effectif de:
1 adjudant-chef, chef de section ;
12 sous-officiers, caporaux-chefs et caporaux ;
40 légionnaires ;
27 fusiliers de discipline ;
5 hébergés.

He mentions that total strength of the garnison as well as the number of men who died in the fighting and those who were later massacred.

La garnison de Ha Giang comptait le 9 au soir 152 militaires européens, dont 15 en traitement à l’infirmerie-hôpital et 7 passagers.
Elle a perdu au combat 22 Européens tués.

Massacre du capitaine Bertard et de 44 sous-officiers et hommes de troupes E. – défenseurs de la caserne de Légion – le 10 mars, peu après 7h. 30.

22 and sergent Butkus et d’un legionnaire (24)


The investigation

Despite all the attention, also in recent years, no complete list of the casualties and victims of the massacre was found.
I decided to make an attempt to compile this list, also in an attempt to find out whether Willem Colijn had been serving with the garnison of Ha Gaing or was there as a convict.

The investigation was started using the Database of French soldiers who died during the Second World War.
The database was searched using the additional search options.
One of these options is to search on the place of death.
Here “Ha Giang” was entered. This resulted in a total of 114 names of soldiers who died in Ha Giang.

Analyses

Of these 114 soldiers, 3 soldiers died before the 9th of March 1945.
Seventeen (17) soldiers died on the 9th of March 1945.
Eighty three (83) soldiers died on the 10th of March 1945
Eleven (11) soldiers died after the massacre on 10th of March 1945.

Noticeable is the often very limited information available about the men who died, in several cases only the last name is available.

Of the soldiers who died on the 10th of March 1945, in only 5 cases the full personal details are provided together with information about their unit; the Marine d’Indochine or Marine de Haiphong.

This hampers making a 100% positive identification between the soldiers that served with the French Foreign Legion and those serving with the other units of the garrison.
It also prevent defining which men of the Legion belonged to the staff of the unit and which were convicts, like in the case of Willem Colijn.

In absence of any specific data on the causes of death, including of those who died after the 10th of March, these men were initially considered as potential victims of the fighting or the massacre. This because they might have died from obtained injuries or they had manage to escape but were captured later and executed. (In some cases further research confirmed this). Another option is that their bodies were found later and the exact date of death was not known. Reported is that: All the bodies were left where they fell until the 16th March.
It was only thanks to an Annamese woman who saw to it that all the bodies were properly buried.


Identifying the legionnaires

The attempt to identify the legionnaires was started with sorting personalia of the men who died in the following groups: last name only, last name and first name(s) and full personalia. This last group was then subdivided per country of birth.
It was assumed that all who were born abroad, would he served with the French Foreign Legion.
All those from France could still have served with the Legion but was not certain.
In was further not excluded that the personalia details could further still provide an indication of the position of the man: legionnaire, herberges, or convict.
The numbers of men finally found per group are provided in the table below.
The groups were further sorted chronologically, 9th of March, 10th of March and after the 10th of March.
Some names are mentioned in the accounts of the event as given in the book by G. Sabattier and A. Mitchell.
In these case the sentence of sentences from the source are given under the name or names.

When confirmed to be a legionnaire or considered with high probability to be a legionnaire the last name is given in bold.

Werner de Beer

All my efforts on this were unexpectedly rewarded by finding a second Dutch legionnaire.
Because his last name sounded rather Dutch, further investigations were performed on Werner de Beer. Although born in Germany, notice the indicated country of birth in Mémoire des hommes is not necessarily identical to the nationality of the man, he was the son of Dutch parents and as such had the Dutch Nationality.

Personalia09-03-194510-03-1945After
10-03-1945
Last Name91
Last Name &
First Name(s)
6164
Full
( Country of Birth )
France4192
Belgique44
Allemagne1151
Tonkin111
Turquie11
Espagne11
Italie1
Cochinchine1
Autriche2
Maurice1
Pays Bas1
Panama1
Algerie1
Russie1
Pologne1
Yougoslavie1
Grèce1
Total (106)177811



Casualties and massacre victims list

Décédé(e) le 09-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

Statut: militaire
Mention: Information non connue
Sources: Service historique de la Défense, Caen

BERGEZ, Cyrille Albert Roger. Né(e) le/en 02-02-1915 à Denguin (64 – Pyrénées-Atlantiques (ex Basses-Pyrénées).
AC 21 P 278562

BEVERNAGE, Luciaan Alfons. Né(e) le/en 02-11-1914 à Courtrai (Belgique). AC 21 P 278585

BLOND, Marcel. AC 21 P 278619

CATTANI, Paolo. AC 21 P 278762

COMPRIX, Théodore. Né(e) le/en 10-04-1915 à Buer Resse (Allemagne). AC 21 P 278821

FILLA, Joseph. AC 21 P 279062

GROOTAERT, Willy Gaston Edmond Louis. Né(e) le/en 22-09-1903 à Adegem (Belgique). AC 21 P 279225

JANSSENS, Ferdinand. Né(e) le/en 25-09-1907 à Rerfienbeuvel (Belgique). AC 21 P 279331

JOLY, Marcel Marie Paul. Né(e) le/en 21-03-1901 à Mende (48 – Lozère, France). AC 21 P 279348

Au salon de la Résidence : le capitaine de génie Jolly est tué [2, p. 576]

KEYSER, André Bienaimé Cornil. Né(e) le/en 22-06-1917 à Strzecle (59 – Nord, France). AC 21 P 279395

LOPEZ, Jésus. AC 21 P 279543

“Legionnaire Lopez told Sury he would reconnoitre downstairs and see what was happening.
In the darkness, he glided down the stairwell and over the flotsam of cadavers in his bare feet. As his foot hit the ground floor a single shot echoed from the darkness and Lopez hit the ground dead.” [1]

NAGY, Joseph. AC 21 P 279757

RAIMBAULT, Henri Joseph. Né(e) le/en 23-09-1923 à Hanoï (Tonkin) AC 21 P 279957

RANOU, Corentin Pierre Yves. Né(e) le/en 23-07-1913 à Landemeur en Riec sur Belon (29 – Finistère, France). AC 21 P 279963

SAMACOUROGLOU, Jean alias THEMISTOCLES. Né(e) le/en 17-03-1910 à Istambul (Turquie). AC 21 P 280047

SCHEUERMANN, Hermann. AC 21 P 280083

VAN VLASSELAER, André alias VANDENHEIM Jean. Né(e) le/en 02-05-1905 à Saint-Gilles-lez-Bruxelles (Belgique). AC 21 P 280251

Décédé(e) le 10-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

ADAM, Marcel Camille Guillaume. Né(e) le/en 12-09-1903 à Huy (Belgique). AC 21 P 278416

ALCHIMOVITZ. AC 21 P 278428

ARNET, Emile. Né(e) le/en 12-12-1904 à Pont-à-Mousson (54 – Meurthe-et-Moselle, France). AC 21 P 278467

BAUBENZERT, Arthur. AC 21 P 278517

BONELLI, Paul. Né(e) le/en 02-01-1909 à Aja (20 – 2A – Corse-du-Sud, France). AC 21 P 278638

BOROVICKY. AC 21 P 278649

BORRAS. AC 21 P 278652

BRASIC, Franc. AC 21 P 278677

CARTA, Angelo. AC 21 P 278747

CERDAN FORTE, Francisco Antonio. Né(e) le/en 01-04-1911 à Alméria (Espagne). AC 21 P 278766

CHASTELLIER, Joseph Yves Jean. Né(e) le/en 15-09-1913 à Plaines Wilhem (Maurice). AC 21 P 278782

COLIJN, Wilhem Fredrik Franciscus. Né(e) le/en 29-01-1911 à Amsterdam (Pays-Bas). AC 21 P 278810

COURT. AC 21 P 278842

DE BEER, Werner Cornelus. Né(e) le/en 06-04-1914 à München-Gladbach (Allemagne). AC 21 P 278549

DE PEER. AC 21 P 279842

DELFIORE, Virgillio. AC 21 P 278893

DENIZARD, Raymond Lucien. Né(e) le/en 05-01-1911 à Provins (77 – Seine-et-Marne, France). AC 21 P 278901

DERNATH. AC 21 P 278905

DORBY, Severin Helier. Né(e) le/en 01-12-1915 à Le Vauclin (972 – Martinique, France). AC 21 P 278940

DRAIN, Jean Robert Julien. Né(e) le/en 23-06-1916 à Plailly (60 – Oise, France). AC 21 P 278949

EHRMULLER, Auguste. Né(e) le/en 22-01-1904 à Obschinig (Allemagne). AC 21 P 278994

ELLERHOLD, Gustav Wilhelm. Né(e) le/en 02-02-1916 à Dusseldorf (Allemagne). AC 21 P 278998

ENCK, Hermann ENCK. Né(e) le/en 06-06-1894 à Wiesbaden (Allemagne). AC 21 P 279003

ETIENNE, Clément. Né(e) le/en 30-11-1915 à David (Panama). AC 21 P 279017

FORRESI, Alain. AC 21 P 279075

GAILLART, Jean Louis GAILLART. Né(e) le/en 09-02-1919 à Peyrehorade (40 – Landes, France). AC 21 P 279110

GERSON, Léonard Franz. Né(e) le/en 21-06-1916 à Gymnich (Allemagne). AC 21 P 279152

GILIBERTI, Antoine. Né(e) le/en 26-05-1902 à Hussein Dey (ex département d’Alger) (Algérie). AC 21 P 279156

GIORGIEV, Alexandre. AC 21 P 279164

GLOGAU, Johann Heinrich August. Né(e) le/en 05-04-1907 à Hannover (Allemagne). AC 21 P 279201

Along the galleried landing, Sury began setting up his defences. Sergent Forest took the south side of the building with a small section of men while Sergents Glogeau manned the west side, and Mukulowicz the east side and staircase

GUILLOUX, Eugène. Né(e) le/en 26-07-1917 à Rennes (35 – Ille-et-Vilaine, France). AC 21 P 279239

HANSL, Ferdinand Walter. Né(e) le/en 29-11-1912 à Grünbach (Autriche). AC 21 P 279262

HERNAERT, Henri Paul. Né(e) le/en 10-02-1915 à Ixelles (Belgique). AC 21 P 280355

HORWATH, Rudolphe. AC 21 P 279304

HUSZACK, Janos. AC 21 P 279316

IVANOFF, Georges. AC 21 P 279324

KOZA, Paul. Né(e) le/en 07-06-1907 à Psary (Pologne). AC 21 P 279415

LAFARGUE, Lucien Elie. AC 21 P 279376

LAURIETTE, Léonce Norbert. Né(e) le/en 06-02-1916 à Trois Rivières (971 – Guadeloupe, France). AC 21 P 279448

LEVY, Rudolf. AC 21 P 279520

LITTWITZ, Günther. AC 21 P 279534

LUXENBURGER, Jakob. Né(e) le/en 10-02-1911 à Eusdorf (Allemagne). AC 21 P 279570

MARIANI, Ange Antoine. Né(e) le/en 24-01-1913 à Frasseto (20 – 2A – Corse-du-Sud, France). AC 21 P 279606

MARLO, Albert Cyrille Lucien. Né(e) le/en 14-06-1916 à La Madeleine (59 – Nord, France). AC 21 P 279613

MONFORT. AC 21 P 279716

MONLAU, Guy Auguste François. Né(e) le/en 20-01-1924 à Thai Binh (Tonkin). AC 21 P 279718

MUKOLOBWIEZ, Ivan. Né(e) le/en 24-11-1908 à Sarpozo (Russie). AC 21 P 279739

Along the galleried landing, Sury began setting up his defences. Sergent Forest took the south side of the building with a small section of men while Sergents Glogeau manned the west side, and Mukulowicz the east side and staircase

MURATI, Jean. Né(e) le/en 01-01-1912 à Murato (20 – 2A – Corse-du-Sud, France). AC 21 P 279750

NOTTIN, Lucien Louis. Né(e) le/en 09-06-1915 à Solterre (45 – Loiret, France). AC 21 P 279783

PANTET, Albert. Né(e) le/en 10-06-1917 à Soyaux (16 – Charente, France). AC 21 P 279813

PASSIAK, Stanislas. AC 21 P 279833

PERRIOLAT, Marie Théophile. Né(e) le/en 02-03-1907 à Tourthezon (84 – Vaucluse, France). AC 21 P 279853

PIGLOWSKI, Thadée. Né(e) le/en 06-10-1912 à Dortmund (Allemagne). AC 21 P 279881

PORDIE, Auguste Léopold. Né(e) le/en 16-10-1902 à Fort-de-France (972 – Martinique, France). AC 21 P 279911

PYSKOVSKY, Albert. Né(e) le/en 08-09-1908 à Vienne (Autriche). AC 21 P 279941

REIFFERS, François Joseph. Né(e) le/en 19-11-1912 à Algrange (57 – Moselle, France). AC 21 P 279974

RUBENZER. AC 21 P 280035

SARAVOLAC, Paja. Né(e) le/en 19-07-1901 à Basaid (Yougoslavie). AC 21 P 280056

SAULI, Placide. Né(e) le/en 01-01-1919 à Pietralla (20 – 2A – Corse-du-Sud, France). AC 21 P 280061

SCHIBOLSKY, Alfred. Né(e) le/en 22-03-1913 à Freienwald sur Oder (Allemagne). AC 21 P 280084

SCHMITZ, Gehard Johann Ferdinand. Né(e) le/en 30-08-1919 à Altona (Allemagne). AC 21 P 280079

SCHNEIDER, Aloys Joseph. Né(e) le/en 09-09-1908 à Sulzbach (Allemagne). AC 21 P 280082

SCHNEIDER, Louis Charles. Né(e) le/en 27-03-1904 à Uffholtz (68 – Haut-Rhin, France). AC 21 P 280085

SCHOLCH. AC 21 P 280087

SEIBERT, Otto. Né(e) le/en 29-05-1904 à Kaiserslautern (Allemagne). AC 21 P 280108

SIMEONI, Jean Baptiste. Né(e) le/en 19-10-1910 à Lozzi (20 – 2A – Corse-du-Sud, France). AC 21 P 280123

SIMEONIDES, Ulysse. Né(e) le/en 11-08-1906 à Istambul (Turquie). AC 21 P 280125

SOURIE, Auguste Louis Henri. Né(e) le/en 26-03-1908 à Bruges (Belgique). AC 21 P 280143

SOUTMANS, Adolphe Auguste. Né(e) le/en 02-08-1907 à Malines (Belgique). AC 21 P 280144

SPIELMAN, Eugène. AC 21 P 280147

SZABO, Jean. AC 21 P 280164

TAMBORINI, Aldo Luigi. Né(e) le/en 17-12-1904 à Casale Litta (Italie). AC 21 P 280169

THOMAS, Théodor. Né(e) le/en 21-05-1901 à Neustadt (Allemagne) Cote AC 21 P 280192

VARGA, Louis. AC 21 P 280253

VRYONIS, Nicolas Evdoxos. Né(e) le/en 1907 à Pirée (Le) (Grèce). AC 21 P 280293

WEBER, Hermann. Né(e) le/en 08-04-1911 à Germendorf (Allemagne). AC 21 P 280300

ZERNA, Fritz Paul. Né(e) le/en 10-08-1908 à Berlin (Allemagne). AC 21 P 280321

Marine d’Indochine ou Haiphong

GALTIER, Yves Jean Marie. Né(e) le/en 20-12-1919 à Najac (12 – Aveyron, France)
Statut militaire – Marine. Grade quartier-maître électricien
Unité marine d’Indochine (MI)
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès tué au combat
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Vincennes
Cote CC8 62 D 4683

LALEOUS, Louis Emmanuel Marie. Né(e) le/en 18-03-1920 à PORT LOUIS (56 – Morbihan, France)
Statut militaire – Marine. Grade quartier-maître mécanicien
Unité marine d’Indochine (MI)
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès tué au combat
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Vincennes
Cote CC8 62 F 6837

LEBRETON, Jean François. Né(e) le/en 24-09-1919 à Étables-sur-Mer (22 – Côtes-d’Armor (ex Côtes-du-Nord),
Statut militaire – Marine. Grade quartier-maître électricien
Unité marine de Haïphong (Viet Nam)
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès tué au combat
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Vincennes
Cote CC8 62 F 7292

THEMISTA, Georges. Né(e) le/en 26-03-1922 à Sontay (ex Tonkin) (Tonkin)
Statut militaire – Marine. Grade quartier-maître mécanicien
Unité marine de Haïphong (Viet Nam)
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès tué au combat
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Vincennes
Cote CC8 62 K 12800

VERET, Fernand Alphonse Robert. Né(e) le/en 28-11-1918 à Perriers sur Andelle (27 – Eure, France)
Statut militaire – Marine. Grade quartier-maître mécanicien
Unité marine de Haïphong (Viet Nam)
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès tué au combat
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Vincennes
Cote CC8 62 K 13311

After 10-03-1945


Décédé(e) le 13-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

MECHARD, Paul. Né(e) le/en 03-07-1923 à Hanoï (ex Tonkin) (Tonkin). AC 21 P 279660

Le 13 mars le soldat Mechard de la 19e compagnie rescapé du massacre de la rivière Claire, blessé, est repris et fusillé pour la deuxième fois.
Est fusillé avec lui le disiplinaire Ehlenhohl qui le 10 mars au matin avait réussi à se glisser hors de la caserne de Légion avant le massacre de la garnison. [2]

EHLENHOHL could be ELLERHOLD, Gustav Wilhelm indicated as died on the 10th of March.




Décédé(e) le 14-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

ALLARD, Corneille. AC 21 P 278879

BEAUVILLE, André Jacques. AC 21 P 278546

BEYSSIER, Raymond. AC 21 P 278823

REYNARD, Georges REYNARD. AC 21 P 279983

VI. AC 21 P 280268


Décédé(e) le 20-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

DARY, Martin. Né(e) le/en 21-03-1911 à Lyon (69 – Rhône, France). AC 21 P 278863


Décédé(e) le 23-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

JEAN, Boileau Léon Firmin. Né(e) le/en 01-12-1924 à Phuoc Long (Cochinchine). AC 21 P 279335


Décédé(e) le 26-03-1945 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

CABALERO, José. Né(e) le/en 11-08-1918 à Estepa (Espagne). AC 21 P 278738

HERMANN, Leon. Né(e) le/en 13-09-1903 à Hambourg (Allemagne) AC 21 P 280354

ROBBE, Gabriel Paul Raymond. Né(e) le/en 22-04-1916 à Paris 14e arrondissement (75 – Paris (ex Seine), France). AC 21 P 279997

“Dans la nuit de 25 au 26 mars le sergent Morin, le caporal-chef Dehee et les légionnaires Cacara, Robbe, Cabalero et Hermann s’évadent de l’hôpital indochinois et cherchent a gagner la Chine en passant entre Laotchay et Thanh-Thuy. Poursuivis par des partisans thos ils sont rattrapés à quelques kilomètres de la frontière le 26 au soir. Morin et Dehee glissant entre leurs mains passeront la frontière dans la nuit. Robbe, Caballero et Hermann sont tués, leurs têtes et leurs mains ramenées à Hagiang commes pièces à conviction. Cacara est fait prisonnier” [2]

Before 09-03-1945


Mort pour la France le 23-06-1940 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

NICOLA, Laversa. Né(e) le/en 1915 à Riziconi (Italie)
Statut militaire. Unité 5e régiment étranger d’infanterie (5e REI)
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès maladie contractée en service
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Caen
Cote AC 21 P 103750

Décédé(e) le 21-09-1943 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

LECOMTE, Raymond Pierre Auguste. Né(e) le/en 28-08-1911 à Loigni sur Mayenne (53 – Mayenne, France)
Statut militaire. Unité 11e régiment d’infanterie coloniale (11e RIC)
Mention Non Mort pour la France. Cause du décès maladie
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Caen
Cote AC 21 P 71266


Mort pour la France le 14-11-1943 (Ha Giang, Tonkin)

LIGARDE, Jérémie Gabriel Raymond. Né(e) le/en 23-03-1909 à Montauban (82 – Tarn-et-Garonne, France)
Statut militaire. Unité 1er Rgt Tirailleurs Tonkinois
Mention Mort pour la France. Cause du décès maladie
Sources Service historique de la Défense, Caen
Cote AC 21 P 79949

[1] The Tigers of Tonkin – The History of the French Foreign Legion in Indochina 1883-1945. Andrew J. Mitchell

[2] Le destin de l’Indochine, Souvenirs et documents : 1941-1951. G. Sabattier (General)

[3] Les Maréchaux de la Légion: L’odyssée du 5e étranger (1940-1945) 1977, Pierre Sergent

[4] http://www.militaria.cz/cz/clanky/valky-a-valecnici/jan-sury-odyssea-cizineckeho-legionare.html

Šurý in Saida 1929.
Jan Šurý joined the French Foreign Legion in 1928 and served until 1947. [4]
Ha-Giang Tonkin Indo-Chine
Legend: From Top to Bottom
a. Fort Billotte
b. Quartier de la Coloniale
c. Quartier de la Légion
d. Hôpital
e. Villas des officiers
f. River and bridge Tholant
g. Quartier of the Japanese
h. Entrance of the Résidence
[Photo Sury exh. Pierre Sergent, Les Marechaux de la Legion]

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